Your baby’s vision: 3 to 4 months old
Has baby begun watching closely from her bouncy seat as you cook dinner on the far side of the room? That’s because around this age, babies can see anywhere from several feet in front of them to all the way across the room. Tracking with her eyes.
Signs of Vision Problems in Babies
Babies learn to see over a period of time, much like they learn to walk and talk. They are not born with all the visual abilities they need in life. The ability to focus their eyes, move them accurately, and use them together as a team must be learned. Also, they need to learn how to use the visual information the eyes send to their brain in order to understand the world around them and interact with it appropriately.
From birth, babies begin exploring the wonders in the world with their eyes. Even before they learn to reach and grab with their hands or crawl and sit-up, their eyes are providing information and stimulation important for their development.
Eye and vision problems in infants can cause developmental delays. It is important to detect any problems early to ensure babies have the opportunity to develop the visual abilities they need to grow and learn. Parents play an important role in helping to assure their child’s eyes and vision can develop properly.
Baby’s first eye exam
Even if no eye or vision problems are apparent, at about age 6 months, you should take your baby to a doctor of optometry for his or her first thorough eye examination. Your doctor of optometry will test for many things, including nearsightedness, farsightedness, or astigmatism as well as eye movement ability and eye alignment. Your doctor will also check the overall health of the eyes. Eye health problems are not common, but if present early detection and treatment offer the best option.
InfantSEE ® managed by Optometry Cares ®—The AOA Foundation is the American Optometric Association’s public health program designed to ensure that eye and vision care becomes an integral part of infant wellness care to improve a child’s quality of life. Under this program, participating doctors of optometry provide a comprehensive infant eye assessment between 6 and 12 months of age as a no-cost public service. Visit the InfantSEE website to learn more and locate a doctor in your area who can provide a free infant assessment.
Steps in infant vision development
At birth, babies can’t see as well as older children or adults. Their eyes and visual system aren’t fully developed. But significant improvement occurs during the first few months of life. The following are some milestones to watch for in vision and child development. It is important to remember that not every child is the same and some may reach certain milestones at different ages.
Birth to 4 months
- At birth, babies’ vision is abuzz with all kinds of visual stimulation. While they may look intently at a highly contrasted target, babies have not yet developed the ability to easily tell the difference between two targets or move their eyes between the two images. Their primary focus is on objects 8 to 10 inches from their face or the distance to the parent’s face.
- During the first months of life, the eyes start working together and vision rapidly improves. Eye-hand coordination begins to develop as the infant starts tracking moving objects with his or her eyes and reaching for them. By eight weeks, babies begin to more easily focus their eyes on the faces of a parent or other person near them.
- For the first two months of life, an infant’s eyes are not well coordinated and may appear to wander or to be crossed. This is usually normal. However, if an eye appears to turn in or out constantly, an evaluation is warranted.
- Babies should begin to follow moving objects with their eyes and reach for things at around three months of age.
5 to 8 months
- During these months, control of eye movements and eye-body coordination skills continue to improve.
- Depth perception, which is the ability to judge if objects are nearer or farther away than other objects, is not present at birth. It is not until around the fifth month that the eyes are capable of working together to form a three-dimensional view of the world and begin to see in-depth.
- Although an infant’s color vision is not as sensitive as an adult’s, it is generally believed that babies have good color vision by 5 months of age.
- Most babies start crawling at about 8 months old, which helps further develop eye-hand-foot-body coordination. Early walkers who did minimal crawling may not learn to use their eyes together as well as babies who crawl a lot.
9 to 12 months
- At around 9 months of age, babies begin to pull themselves up to a standing position. By 10 months of age, a baby should be able to grasp objects with thumb and forefinger.
- By twelve months of age, most babies will be crawling and trying to walk. Parents should encourage crawling rather than early walking to help the child develop better eye-hand coordination. • Babies can now judge distances fairly well and throw things with precision.
1 to 2 years
- By 2 years of age, a child’s eye-hand coordination and depth perception should be well developed.
- Children this age are highly interested in exploring their environment and in looking and listening. They recognize familiar objects and pictures in books and can scribble with crayons or pencils.
Signs of eye and vision problems
The presence of eye and vision problems in infants is rare. Most babies begin life with healthy eyes and start to develop the visual abilities they will need throughout life without difficulty. But occasionally, eye health and vision problems can develop. Parents need to look for the following signs that may be indications of eye and vision problems:
- Excessive tearing may indicate blocked tear ducts.
- Red or encrusted eyelids could be a sign of an eye infection.
- Constant eye turning may signal a problem with eye muscle control.
- Extreme sensitivity to light may indicate an elevated pressure in the eye.
- The appearance of a white pupil may indicate the presence of eye cancer.
The appearance of any of these signs should require immediate attention by a doctor of optometry.
What parents can do to help with visual development
There are many things parents can do to help their baby’s vision develop properly. The following are some examples of age-appropriate activities that can assist an infant’s visual development.
Birth to 4 months
- Use a nightlight or other dim lamp in the baby’s room.
- Change the crib’s position frequently and change the child’s position in it.
- Keep reach-and-touch toys within the baby’s focus, about eight to twelve inches.
- Talk to the baby while walking around the room.
- Alternate right and left sides with each feeding.
5 to 8 months
- Hang a mobile, crib gym, or various objects across the crib for the baby to grab, pull and kick.
- Give the baby plenty of time to play and explore on the floor.
- Provide plastic or wooden blocks that can be held in the hands.
- Play patty cake and other games, moving the baby’s hands through the motions while saying the words aloud.
9 to 12 months
- Play hide and seek games with toys or your face to help the baby develop visual memory.
- Name objects when talking to encourage the baby’s word association and vocabulary development skills.
- Encourage crawling and creeping.
1 to 2 years
- Roll a ball back and forth to help the child track objects with the eyes visually.
- Give the child building blocks and balls of all shapes and sizes to play with to boost fine motor skills and small muscle development.
- Read or tell stories to stimulate the child’s ability to visualize and pave the way for learning and reading skills.
Baby Vision Development Week by Week
A baby’s vision goes through many changes during their first year of life. Your pediatrician will check your infant’s vision at each well-child visit. They make sure your baby’s vision is developing as it should. Knowing what to expect can help you watch and enjoy your child’s visual development.
A word about premature babies
We base the vision development milestones below on your baby’s due date, not based on the date they were born.
Newborns: adjusting to light and beginning to focus
At birth, an infant is very sensitive to bright light. You may notice how small their pupils look, limiting how much light enters their eyes. A newborn baby can see something next to them with their peripheral (side) vision, but their central vision is still developing.
Within a couple of weeks, as their retinas develop, a baby’s pupils widen. They can see light and dark ranges and patterns. Large shapes and bright colors may begin to attract their attention. A baby also may begin to focus on an object right in front of them.
At about 1 month, your baby may focus briefly on you but may still prefer brightly colored objects up to 3 feet away. Infants are able to see across a room even at birth, but they are mostly interested in objects very close to them.
From 2 to 4 months: focusing and tracking moving objects
For their first 2 months, babies’ eyes often do not work together very well. You might notice your baby’s eyes appear to be crossed or they may seem to wander out to the sides. In most cases, this is normal and they will eventually correct themselves. But if one of your baby’s eyes constantly turns in toward their nose or outward away from the nose, talk with your pediatrician.
At about 2 months old, babies usually are able to follow a moving object with their eyes as their visual coordination improves. In fact, at around 3 months old, your baby may have enough eye and arm coordination to bat at a nearby moving object.
At 3 months old, your baby’s eyes should work together to focus and track objects. If you do not notice this happening, talk with your pediatrician.
From 5 to 8 months: reaching, recognizing, and recalling
At around 5 months old, a baby’s ability to see how far an object is from them (called depth perception) has developed more fully. They are seeing the world in 3 dimensions (3-D) more completely. They get better at reaching for objects both near and far. They also have good color vision at this point, though not quite as fully developed as an adult’s.
At this stage, a baby may recognize their parent across a room and smile at them. They can see objects outside when looking through a window. They might even remember what an object is even if they only see part of it.
Babies generally start crawling at around 8 months old, and this further enhances their hand-eye coordination.
From 9 to 12 months: gripping, grasping and on the go
At about 9 months old, babies can generally judge distance pretty well. This is about when they start to pull themselves up to stand. Your baby’s eyes are probably their final color now. However, it is not uncommon to see some slight changes later.
At around 10 months old, babies can usually see and judge distance well enough to grasp something between their thumb and forefinger.
By 12 months old, most babies are crawling and trying to walk.
Steps to make sure your child’s eyes and vision develop properly
Eye or vision problems can delay a baby’s development. It is important to find these problems as early as possible so you can get them the help they need to grow and learn properly.
Parents should take these important steps:
- Watch for problems like inward or outward turning eyes or significant delays in tracking moving objects. Bring them to your pediatrician’s attention.
- Get infant/child eye screenings as recommended to catch any vision problems early.
- Ask your pediatrician for age-appropriate activities you can do with your baby to help develop their vision.