A teenager’s pregnancy also might reduce her mother’s achievement expectations for her other children. For example, the older daughter’s early behavior might not help her younger sibling enjoy school and have confidence in his own abilities to succeed in school, which could produce long-term effects on the boy’s personality and academic achievement.
A teenager’s pregnancy also might reduce her mother’s achievement expectations for her other children. For example, the older daughter’s early marriage might signal to a younger sister that she is not expected to attend college. Thus, even if we found that teenage pregnancies did not affect mothers’ self-esteem directly, this might be because they have already reduced their expectations for their daughters and their daughters’ futures.
A teenager’s pregnancy also might reduce her mother’s achievement expectations for her other children. For example, the older daughter’s early childbearing might reduce her expectations of what is possible for her younger siblings and make them less likely to achieve academically.
Although teen pregnancy has many negative consequences for the teenager and her family, it can also affect a parent’s or stepparent’s guilt, stress, and relationship with the teenager. A teenager’s pregnancy might reduce her mother’s achievement expectations for her other children. For example, the older daughter’s early pregnancy in a family with divorced parents might have discouraged the mother from being involved in school activities because she feels helpless to prevent another teenage pregnancy.
Effects of Teenage Pregnancy Essay
Teenage pregnancy refers to pregnancy of a young woman aged between 10 and 19 years. In addition to the problems and complications faced during any pregnancy, there are many consequences of becoming pregnant as a teen which includes mental problems, social and financial problems and also risk of death.
Impact on family
When teen pregnancy occurs, the entire family will be affected which lead to stress that will affect family relationships. The first predicament faced by the teen and her family is whether or not to continue with the pregnancy and have the baby. The teenager usually feel that she is not ready to take care of the baby and opted for abortion or may give it up for adoption. The problems will get worse if it involve legal issue which may add to the pressure and stress that the teen and the family encountered.
Impact on adolescent’s mental health
Pregnant adolescent are at higher risk to get mental health problems such as depression, intense stress and pressure to become parents. They are faced with a lack of support from family and community that will lead to depression, making wrong decisions and abusing drugs.
Because of the stigma of teenage pregnancy is still high in our community, pregnant teen may deal with feelings of shame, guilt, anger, denial and may lead to depression and low self-esteem. Eventually they will be afraid to seek help from friends, family or anyone about becoming pregnant which lead to further isolation from society.
Effects of induce abortion/termination of pregnancy
A pregnancy that result in induced abortion can result in long-term psychological effects on adolescent which include depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, guilt feelings, sleep problems and anxiety disorders.
Stigma attached to teen pregnancy out of wedlock will make adolescent feel isolated and do not get much support from family and friends.
Health consequences of teenage pregnancy
The effect of teen pregnancy to the baby:
- Low birth weight (less than 2.5 kg)
- Early birth (premature). Pregnant adolescent often give birth earlier than expected (before 37 weeks)
- Infant death. Pregnant teen often do not get adequate antenatal care which can lead to detrimental consequences for the baby.
The effect of pregnancy to the teenager:
- High blood pressure. Often occur during the first pregnancy (pregnancy induced hypertension)
- Difficult labour. Pregnant adolescent often have high risk of obstructive labour due to small pelvic cavity which may lead to the use of tools to assist delivery (Instrumental delivery)
- Birth complications that can result in infant death.
Due to stigma and shame pregnant teenager are often forced to stop schooling and this will reduces their chance to hold a decent job and have a good income which will limits the opportunities to build a better life in the future. Poor income may have adverse consequences to the nutrition and care of the baby to be born.
Pregnant teens are at higher risk of living in poverty, unable to maintain a stable job, ending up in abusive home, having children who have low grades in school and having daughters with a higher risk of becoming pregnant during teenage years. This fact is derived from studies conducted by the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
Every teenager needs to know the effects and consequences of risk behaviors that will lead to teenage pregnancy. Pregnant teenager may encounter many problems as discussed above which will affect family relationships and society.
Positive Effects of Teenage Pregnancy
There were nearly 250,000 babies born in 2014 to teen moms, according to the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. About 77 percent of these pregnancies were unplanned. A teenage pregnancy can change the course of a young mom’s life. It puts her in a place where she’s responsible not only for herself, but also for another human being.
Carrying a baby and becoming a mom not only creates physical changes. Women also go through mental changes. Young moms face added stress from:
- sleepless nights
- arranging child care
- making doctor’s appointments
- attempting to finish high school
While not all teenage mothers are affected greatly by mental and physical changes, many are. If you experience mental health changes after childbirth, it’s important to reach out to others and seek professional help.
A research study published in the journal Pediatrics studied more than 6,000 Canadian women, ranging in age from adolescents to adults. The researchers found that girls ranging from 15 to 19 experienced postpartum depression at a rate that was twice as high as women aged 25 and older.
Another study reported that teen mothers face significant levels of stress that can then lead to increased mental health concerns. In addition to higher rates of postpartum depression, teenage mothers have higher rates of depression.
They also have higher rates of suicidal ideation than their peers who aren’t mothers. Teen mothers are more likely to experience posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than other teenage women, as well. This could be because teen moms are more likely to have gone through mental and/or physical abuse.
Teen moms might face a number of mental health conditions related to childbirth and being a new mom. Examples of these conditions include:
- Baby blues: The “baby blues” are when a woman experiences symptoms for one to two weeks after giving birth. These symptoms include mood swings, anxiety, sadness, overwhelm, difficulty concentrating, trouble eating, and difficulty sleeping.
- Depression: Being a teen mom is a risk factor for depression. If a mom has a baby before 37 weeks or experiences complications, depression risks can increase.
- Postpartum depression: Postpartum depression involves more severe and significant symptoms than baby blues. Teen moms are twice as likely to experience postpartum depression as their adult counterparts. Women sometimes mistake postpartum depression for the baby blues. Baby blues symptoms will go away after a few weeks. Depression symptoms won’t.
Additional symptoms of postpartum depression include:
- difficulty bonding with your baby
- overwhelming fatigue
- feeling worthless
- panic attacks
- thinking of harming yourself or your baby
- difficulty enjoying activities you once did
If you experience these effects after giving birth, help is available. It’s important to know that you aren’t alone. Remember, many women experience postpartum depression.
Teenage mothers are more likely to fall in demographic categories that make the risk of mental illness higher. These risk factors include:
- having parents with low education levels
- a history of child abuse
- limited social networks
- living in chaotic and unstable home environments
- living in low-income communities
In addition to these factors, teenage mothers are more likely to experience significant levels of stress that can increase risk for mental health disorders.
But some factors can reduce the likelihood that a teenage mom will have psychiatric issues. If a teen mom has a supportive relationship with her mother and/or the baby’s father, her risks are reduced.
While teen pregnancy can have a significant effect on a young mother’s mental health, it impacts other aspects of her life too. It’s important to consider these factors:
According to a study published in the American Journal of EpidemiologyTrusted Source, teenage parents often don’t complete higher levels of education. They often have more restricted economic opportunities than older parents.
Around one-half of teen moms have their high school diploma by age 22. Only 10 percent of teen moms typically complete a two- or four-year degree. While there are certainly exceptions, high school completion and higher education is typically associated with a greater ability to earn more income over the course of a lifetime.
According to a study published in Maternal Child Health JournalTrusted Source, teenage mothers had the poorest physical health of all categories of women studied, including women who engaged in unprotected sex. Teenage mothers may neglect their physical health while caring for their babies. They may also not have access to or know about healthy foods and eating. They are also more likely to be obese.
According to the National Institutes of HealthTrusted Source, there’s a higher risk of the following in teenage pregnancy:
- contracting STDs (sexually transmitted diseases)
- premature delivery
- delivering at low birth weight
Impact to the child
According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, children born to adolescent parents face greater challenges throughout their lives. These challenges include getting less education and worse behavioral and physical health outcomes.
According to Youth.gov, other effects to a child of a teenage mother include:
- greater risk for lower birth weight and infant mortality
- less prepared to enter kindergarten
- rely more heavily on publicly funded health care
- are more likely to be incarcerated at some time during adolescence
- are more likely to drop out of high school
- are more likely to be unemployed or underemployed as a young adult
These effects can create a perpetual cycle for teenage mothers, their children, and their children’s children.
Teenage motherhood doesn’t have to mean a young woman won’t be successful in life. But it’s important they consider what other young mothers before them have faced related to overall health, financial stability, and the health of their child.
Young mothers should talk to a school counselor or social worker regarding services that can assist them in finishing school and living a healthier.